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Sri Lankan English - Updates K

This page contains updates to the dictionary beginning with the letter K. It is divided into 2 parts: New Entries, and Comments and Corrections. Click here to return to the main updates page, or on the links on the left side of the page to go to another letter.

These pages are updated regularly; please contact me if you have any suggestions or feedback which can be included.

Latest update: December 2014. New additions are in red.

NEW ENTRIES:

kachchaal (= karachchal): (coll.) problem, trouble (Sinhala/Tamil)
If I didn’t leave at that point the secret would have become a kachchaal and I knew that my mother, she just wouldn’t have been able to deal with it. (The Moon in the Water, by Ameena Hussein, page 73)


kade paan: normal white bread from a kade (Sinhala)
They had taken a packed lunch of chicken roast, kadé paan, pol sambol and beer. (The Moon in the Water, by Ameena Hussein, page 69)

kadu faculty: (coll.) English department at university (from Sinhala kaduwa = sword)
The Department of English, affectionately and informally called ‘The Kadu Faculty’ … (University of Kelaniya website)
… what was then called the 'elitist' English Department or also known as the 'Kadu' faculty with 'snobbish' students, … (Daily News 04/11/09)

kadupul: queen of the night, nightblooming cereus (Epiphyllum oxypetalum), a rare white flower which blooms at night (Sinhala)
Kadupul: the midnight miracle
This is the Kadupul - the legendary flower of the Celestial Nagas. (Sunday Observer 12/10/08)


Kaffir: a member of a small community of African origin, brought to Sri Lanka by the Portuguese and still living as a distinct community mainly based in the Puttalam area
> The word ‘kaffir’ is derived from the Arabic word ‘qafir’ meaning non-Muslim or non-believer. It was used for several centuries as a term for black South Africans, but in Africa is now considered a racist term. The Sri Lankan Kaffirs are Catholics and their traditional language is Portuguese Creole, which is still spoken by some elders of the community.
By 1848, the Corps numbered 3,000 experienced workers, … assisted by African troops (called ‘Kaffirs’), descendants of those brought by the Portuguese to Sri Lanka. (Nobodies to Somebodies, by Kumari Jayawardena, page 91)
The saxophonist went under the name of Freddie Fonseka, but his flat nose and woolly hair branded him a Kaffir. The Dutch had brought them over from Africa to deploy against the island’s kings. (The Hamilton Case, by Michelle de Kretser, page 102)
It is then that I notice that her features are almost African; maybe she has Kaffir blood. Kaffirs are descendants of Africans, brought here by the Portuguese. (Chinaman, by Shehan Karunatilaka, page 400)
... like the old-time Kaffirs already in his employ ... (Beggar’s Feast, by Randy Boyagoda, page 222)
“But his hair, dear. Awfully curly, don’t you think? Kaffir hair?” (The Professional, by Ashok Ferrey, page 74)

kaffringna: a type of baila, a popular traditional Portuguese-style dance music (Portuguese)
> The name kaffringna clearly derives from the Kaffir community, which has a rich Portuguese/African musical tradition (also called Manja). However, the word is now used more loosely to refer to a variety of baila. Alternative spellings include kaffrinja, kaffringa, kaffringha, kaffringna, and the same spellings with an extra i (kaffirinja, kaffiringa, kaffiringha, kaffiringna). It is spelt kaffrinja in The Jam Fruit Tree by Carl Muller, and kaffringa in The Sweet and Simple Kind by Yasmine Gooneratne (see below):
The rhythm of baila and kaffringa, Latha found, was yet another of those traditions of the maritime provinces, inherited from the island’s European conquerors, that had been hidden from her by her mother’s prejudice against all things ‘Western’. … All around the room the most dignified of men and prudent of women were rocking within seconds to the energetic, compelling beat of baila and kaffringa, the men in mock-amorous pursuit, the women flashing coy, side-long glances while pretending to retreat. (The Sweet and Simple Kind, by Yasmine Gooneratne, page 196-7)

“But you just put some Kaffringha music on, he’ll be down here before you can say Robertson’s Marmalade.” (The Professional, by Ashok Ferrey, page 74)

kahata: (= stainy) astringent (one of the 6 tastes described in ayurveda) (Sinhala)
> Kahata refers to the bitter taste (caused by tannin) in strong tea (especially plain tea without sugar), in herbal remedies such as kasaya, and in certain fruits such as uguressa (especially when unripe). The Sinhala word kahata is much more common than the English equivalent ‘astringent’, so kahata is also used in English-speaking contexts.


kambi: steel rods used in reinforced concrete (Sinhala/Tamil = wire)

Kandyan chief: a former chief or headman in the Kandyan kingdom
In just two years after the Kandyan chiefs handed over the last Sinhala Kingdom ruled by Sri Wickrama Rajasinghe the people of the Kandyan region rose in rebellion against the British. They fought the British Red Coats for the next three years and many Kandyan chiefs, officials, laymen and clergy joined it. (Daily News 04/02/10)

Kandyan law: a traditional legal system relating to marriage, divorce and inheritance, which applies to Sinhalese of Kandyan descent
Kandyan law, however, made a distinction between forms of marriage; in the case of binna marriage, where the husband moved to live with his wife and her family, the wife had the same rights as her brothers in ancestral property. Where the marriage was diga, the wife moving to the husband’s house, she could not claim equal inheritance with her brothers. (Nobodies to Somebodies, by Kumari Jayawardena, page 285)
The Kandyan Law stipulates that a "deega" daughter coming from a family originating from the Kandyan Region … is not entitled to inherit property from her father. (Sunday Observer 10/03/02)
My own research in Kandyan law has documented the manner in which colonial legislation transformed these Kandyan laws, and entrenched male centred legal principles that discriminated against women. (Island 30/04/11)

kankun: water spinach, water morning glory (Ipomoea aquatica), a green leaf used in cooking (Malay)
We always ate gotukola and kankun that grew wild on the riverbank. It was free. That was what we had with our rice at most times, gotukola and kankun. (Sam’s Story, by Elmo Jayawardena, page 45)
… the vegetable-hawker who had stacked her kankun and mukunuvanna miti in neatly tied bright green bundles. (Rainbows in Braille, by Elmo Jayawardena, page 111)
Finally it arrived – vegetable fried rice, cuttlefish in butter sauce, sweet and sour chicken, kankung beef, prawns in batter, and vegetable chow mein. (The Mango Tree, by Anthea Senaratna, page 96)
Or it might have been the extra strength garlic in the kang-kung. (Serendipity, by Ashok Ferrey, page 207)
Renu and I would often find her in the kitchen, … peeling onions and garlic or sorting through kankong leaves. (The Hungry Ghosts, by Shyam Selvadurai, page 73)

karachchal (= kachchaal): (coll.) problem, trouble (Sinhala/Tamil)
If the Minister in-charge of SLBC cannot stop the karachchal in the SLBC’s news bulletin, will the President be powerful enough to do it? (Island 02/05/06)


karaiyar: the ‘fisher’ caste (equivalent of Sinhala karava) (Tamil) (> caste)
Prabhakaran belongs to Karaiyar or deep sea fisherman’s caste. This caste is way below the dominant Brahman and Vellala caste. (Island 25/02/01)
The people of the fishing castes, collectively known as the Karaiyar, were independent of this social structure to which the landed communities were bound. (groundviews.org 03/01/12)


kasippu den: a place where kasippu is made and sold illegally
Weligama kasippu den raided (Daily Mirror 31/07/10)
After she died, he went on a binge and spent almost a month living in a kassippu den, drinking day and night. (The Lament of the Dhobi Woman, by Karen Roberts, page 28)


katta: (= shrewd, kapati) (coll.) crafty, cunning (Sinhala)

kavadi: a decorated arch carried on the shoulders as a symbol of religious penance as part of a Hindu festival, accompanied by a dance (Tamil)
(Click here to see a photograph)

… they dance the ‘Kavadi’ and even walk on burning embers to repay vows. (Island 26/11/07)
Many devotees carry kavadi, which is beautifully arch shaped and studded with peacock feathers and the devotees dance to the rhythm of the music. (Daily News 16/08/10)
A large number of Kavadi dancers are thronging to the Nallur Kanthaswamy Temple every day for the annual festival that commenced on 12 August. Kavadi dance is an expression of devotion to Lord Skanda (the Kataragama deity) … (Ceylon Today 16/08/13)


kaviya (plural kavi): poem, verse, traditional ballad (Sinhala)
“Why do I have to waste my time studying Sinhala kavi, Miss?” (The Sweet and Simple Kind, by Yasmine Gooneratne, page 55)
Worse, at times: he got them to read out the kavi in the Selalihini Sandheshaya, and the Guththilaya: … He knew it too well that … they weren’t the kavi type. (Stable Horses, by Vihanga Perera, page 71)
The astrologer … recollected the words of a kaviya he had once heard from his father’s lips. (Theravada Man, by Manuka Wijesinghe, page 147)
“I did not know she could recite kavi so well.” (Theravada Man, by Manuka Wijesinghe, page 250)

Far away I hear the cook and Nizam singing kavi, each outdoing the other in the bawdiness of their rhyming couplets. (Serendipity, by Ashok Ferrey, page 200)

kehel kana, kesel kana: a whole branch of bananas, the full crop from a single tree (Sinhala)
(Click here to see a photograph)
“Two full kana on any given day, …” (Rainbows in Braille, by Elmo Jayawardena, page 30)

All smiles as he brings his ‘kesel kena’ to the ‘pola’ (www.ft.lk 05/07/12)
What if one neighbor has a long history of jumping into your premises when you are not around or while you are asleep and taking off with a kehel kena or two? (malindawords.blogspot.com)

kekka: a long stick or bamboo pole with a hook on the end, used for picking fruits (Sinhala)
A man who was plucking a coconut with a kekka from the roof of a toilet, died when a coconut he had plucked fell on his head, a coroner's inquest was told yesterday. (Daily News 22/07/13)

kenda: a type of leaf (Macaranga peltata) used to wrap jaggery, halapa, etc. (Sinhala)
Kenda leaves are commonly used for flavoring in Sri Lanka. Halapa dough is often flattened on a kenda leaf to soak in the flavor. Kenda leaves are used to wrap jaggery and other sweetmeats. (eol.org)
The President was worried that the envoys would consume the helapa along with the kenda leaf in which the sweetmeat is wrapped so he proceeded to eat one by carefully removing the cover in the presence of the new Ambassador for Palestine … (Sunday Times 05/03/06)
Halapa in particular will intrigue anyone who is not used to eating it. It is a flat sweet wrapped in the leaf which must be peeled away to taste the sweet. The unique flavour of the Kenda leaf is infused in to these sweets, which give them a characteristic taste. (exploresrilanka.lk 08/11)

kerosene oil: kerosene (US), paraffin (UK)
37,000 drinking water bottles contaminated with kerosene oil have been apprehended. (www.slbc.lk 21/04/14)

kidney patient: a person suffering from kidney disease (> heart patient)
Padaviya is an area where there could be more than one kidney patient in each family. (Daily Mirror 07/08/13)

kids: children (restricted to informal colloquial contexts in BSE, but sometimes used in more formal contexts in SLE)

Kili: (coll.) Kilinochchi

President arrives in Kili aboard Yal Devi (Daily News 16/09/13)

kirala: mangrove apple (Sonneratia), a type of fruit used to make juice (Sinhala)

However, the ripened ‘Kirala’ has a very delightful taste as a fruit and is used to make an even more delightful fruit drink that is rich in vitamins. It is also said that ‘Kirala’ is a very cooling drink that soothes the body and is also a good remedy for stomach related ailments. (exploresrilanka.lk 03/12)

knock off: knock out
… knowing very well that Stanley's small arracks were enough to knock off a horse. (July, by Karen Roberts, page 21)
“Our air force will knock them off easily.” (Arathi, by Nihal de Silva, page 128)

konde kurulla (= kondaya, bulbul): a small bird with a crest (konde) on its head; the most common variety is the red-vented bulbul (Pycnonotus cafer) (Sinhala)
It was full of birds – mynahs, sparrows, konde kurullas. (All is Burning, by Jean Arasanayagam, page 91)
… the parrots, squirrels, konda kurullas, the koha, the shikra, the pol kitchas, the mynahs, the sunbirds, … (The Moon in the Water, by Ameena Hussein, page 229)


kottamba (= kottan): tropical almond (Terminalia catappa), a tree with spreading branches and edible seeds (Sinhala)
… and the leaves shaking in the Kottamba tree as the bats flew in and out for their evening meal. (Rainbows in Braille, by Elmo Jayawardena, page 48)
Mythil hid behind a big kottamba tree near the stream … (Mythil’s Secret, by Prashani Rambukwella, page 9)

kudda: (coll.) drug addict (Sinhala)

Most of us used to go to Darley Road for auto stuff. But in my personal experience it is not the nicest place to be in the city with kudda’s all around. (forum.autolanka.com 19/11/07)
I was labelled a “Kudda” – DM (Daily Mirror 23/12/13)

kumarihamy: an aristocratic Kandyan lady (Sinhala)
… and canny, country-bred kumarihamys with sons fattening nicely for market. (The Good Little Ceylonese Girl, by Ashok Ferrey, page 57)
The door was opened by the elderly Kumarihamy herself. (The Professional, by Ashok Ferrey, page 100)
Receiving the groom’s party at the bride’s residence were Amunugama Basnayaka Nilame, the Adigar in Kandyan chieftain’s attire along with his kumarihamy. (www.infolanka.com)
Around eight Berava families resident here have for generations turned out beautiful cottons adorned with traditional motifs known as Dumbararataa likely to captivate the heart of any blue-blooded Kandyan Kumarihami. (Sunday Observer 11/05/03)
There too the young administrator tried to have a word with the 'Kumarihamy', but she somehow evaded him. (Sunday Observer 10/12/06)


kuppi: cyanide capsule carried by LTTE cadres (Tamil = vial or small bottle)
Since Prabhakaran is a man who cannot give up, it is totally unlikely that he would remain in Mullaitivu, waiting with the "kuppi" in hand. (Island 05/01/09)
Thereafter each fighter marches up to the presiding commander and receives a cyanide vial, a kuppi, a totem that marks a commitment to selfless action, inclusive of suicide when faced with capture. … Yogi informed the BBC personnel that the kuppi had to be bitten not just swallowed, … (Island 08/04/09)

kuppi lamp: a small kerosene bottle lamp
When I reached home, two ‘Kuppi’ lamps were burning. (Island 12/01/02)
The situation is no different from the days of the Kuppi lamps, kerosene lamps and Petromax lamps. (www.colombotelegraph.com 03/12/12)


kutti: monk’s cell (Sinhala)
Some of the caves are divided by brick walls to be made into kutties for monks. (Shirley Perera, in The Nature of Sri Lanka by Luxshmanan Nadaraja, page 95)

… little mud kooties to which once in a while could be seen a yellow robed figure walking sedately. (Somewhere, by Vijita Fernando, page 12)



COMMENTS AND CORRECTIONS:

kaneru: yellow oleander, a plant with poisonous seeds (Sinhala)

kavadi dancer: Hindu devotional dancer (not ‘traditional’ Hindu dancer)
(Click here to see a photograph) (and see kavadi above)

kohomba: margosa, neem (Sinhala)

kossa: DELETE (Sinhala word not common in SLE)



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